Acute Cardiac Care

Chest pain and dyspnea are perhaps the most common complaints present in an emergency department. Since these symptoms are associated with various conditions pertaining to the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, timely and accurate diagnosis is of paramount importance.

Biomarkers for Acute Cardiac Care
Integrating information from cardiac biomarker assays with clinical interpretations has facilitated precise and timely diagnosis of critical conditions, allowing immediate therapeutic interventions. The advantages of biomarker testing in acute cardiac situations include:1

  • Rapid and accurate exclusion diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), and pulmonary embolism (PE)
  • Improved prognosis in patients diagnosed with AMI, HF or PE
  • Determination of initial therapy
  • Risk assessment for future cardiovascular events

The acute cardiac care setting is routinely faced with the management of four major disease conditions:

  • Plaque Instability and Inflammation
    Plaque instability is an event in which atherosclerotic plaque becomes fragile and then ruptures, leading to the formation of arterial thrombi that block the blood flow to various parts of the body.2

    Inflammation plays a key role in atherothrombosis, which in turn forms the common underlying pathophysiological mechanism for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular diseases.


Cardiac biomarkers useful in aiding the diagnosis of Plaque Instability and Inflammation include:




  • Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)
    ACS is a clinical manifestation of the critical phase of coronary artery disease (CAD),3 and commonly presents as chest pain as a result of insufficient blood supply to the heart muscles.4

    Cardiac biomarkers useful in aiding the diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome include:
    Cardiac troponin I
    BNP and NT-proBNP


  • Heart Failure
    Heart failure (HF) represents the inability of the heart to supply sufficient blood to meet the body's metabolic and functional requirements.5

    Cardiac biomarkers useful in aiding the diagnosis of Heart Failure include:
    BNP and NT-proBNP
    Cardiac troponin I


  • Thromboembolic Diseases
    Thromboembolism is characterized by the formation of clots (thrombi) within blood vessels, and commonly manifests as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE).

    Cardiac biomarkers useful in aiding the diagnosis of Thromboembolic Diseases include:
    - D-dimer


Reliable Answers to Critical Cardiac Questions
As a recognized worldwide leader in CVD testing, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics provides a comprehensive and expanding menu of cardiac biomarkers across a broad spectrum of instrument solutions that help clinicians make accurate and timely diagnoses in critical situations.

Click here to learn more about our complete menu of cardiac biomarkers.





  1. Harrison A, et al. Am J Emerg Med. 2005;23:371-8.
  2. American Heart Association. Atherosclerosis. Accessed Dec. 2008.
  3. Morrow DA, et al. Clin Chem. 2007;53:552-74.
  4. American Heart Association. Acute Coronary Syndrome. Accessed Dec. 2008.
  5. Meune C, et al. Reference Guide - 2003.


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