History of mammography:
1964 – 1986
Prof. Dr. Walter Dobretsberger developed Fluidography in Linz, Austria. It was a method which attempted to perform mammography without compression and was introduced by Siemens as the FLUIDOGRAPH in 1964.
Fluidography uses the so-called Isodens method, where the breast is immersed in a bath of alcohol. The breast tissue and the alcohol have nearly the same absorption. This compensates for thinner parts of the breast which would otherwise be over exposed.
In 1972, Siemens introduced its first dedicated mammography system: the Mammomat. All previous mammography solutions either needed a separate X-ray generator or were just add-ons for existing X-ray systems.
A mammography image acquired with the Mammomat.
In 1981, Siemens introduced the Mammomat B. Innovations included an anti-scatter grid, magnification technique, …
… and a biopsy paddle enabling needle localization under mammography control.
The Mammomat 2 in 1986 was the first system with a Tungsten anode and Rhodium K-edge filter, saving up to 40%1 dose compared to previous systems. Two object tables enabled immediate cassette size changes.
Either film or Xeroradiography were used for imaging with Mammomat 2. This image was acquired with Xeroradiography2
1Comparison of Anode/Filter Combinations in Digital Mammography with Respect to the Average Glandular Dose Uhlenbrock DF, Mertelmeier T
2Xeroradiography is a precursor to digital mammography and CR. It used an amorphous selenium plate as the X-ray receptor with the image being stored as a charge distribution. The imprint on paper was achieved with a toner with the charge on the plate attracting toner particles.